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Ref Book - Intelligence Community and Government Websites

Friday, August 03, 2012

Intelligence Community and Government Websites


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Office of the Director of National Intelligence: www.dni.gov


Central Intelligence Agency: www.cia.gov

National Security Agency: www.nsa.gov

Defense Intelligence Agency: www.dia.mil

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency: www.nga.mil

National Reconnaissance Office: www.nro.gov

Department of Defense: www.defenselink.mil; www.defense.gov


Department of Justice: www.usdoj.gov


Department of State:
www.state.gov

Department of Treasury: www.ustreas.gov

Department of Homeland Security: www.dhs.gov


Department of Energy:
www.energy.gov

White House: www.whitehouse.gov

U.S. Senate: www.senate.gov


U.S. House of Representatives: www.house.gov


Library of Congress: www.loc.gov


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Ref Book - AG Guidelines involving FIS

Friday, August 03, 2012

Criminal Activity Involving FIS

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Guidelines Regarding Prompt Handling of Reports of Possible Criminal Activity Involving Foreign Intelligence Sources

Office of the Attorney General
Washington, DC 20530
September 23, 2002
 

MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF DEPARTMENT COMPONENTS
 

FROM THE ATTORNEY GENERAL -/S/-John Ashcroft
 

SUBJECT: Guidelines Regarding Prompt Handling of Reports of Possible Criminal Activity Involving Foreign Intelligence Sources
 

Section 905(b) of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272,389, requires the Attorney General to develop guidelines to ensure that the Department of Justice responds within a reasonable period of time to reports from the intelligence community of possible criminal activity involving foreign intelligence sources or potential foreign intelligence sources. See 50 U.S.C. §403-5b(b). This memorandum establishes procedures to administer the requirement so f section 905 (b).

 

Pursuant to section 1.7(a) of Executive Order 12333; 28 U.S.C. §535(b); and the 1995 Memorandum of Understanding: Reporting of Information Concerning Federal Crimes (“1995 MOU”) between the Department of Justice and members of the intelligence community (Attachment A hereto), the intelligence community is required, inter alia, to report to the Assistant Attorney General or a  designated Deputy Assistant Attorney General of the Criminal Division information that it has collected in the performance of its intelligence activities concerning possible federal crimes by employees of an intelligence agency and violations of specified federal criminal laws by any other person. This reporting requirement extends to matters in which the intelligence community agency determines that investigation or prosecution of the matter “may result in a public disclosure of classified information or intelligence sources or methods or would jeopardize the security of ongoing intelligence operations.” 1995 MOU at 9

Upon receipt of a report of possible criminal activity pursuant to the 1995 MOU, the designated Deputy Assistant Attorney General shall refer the possible crime report to the appropriate component within the Department of Justice for review, including a determination of whether to commence or decline to commence a criminal investigation.

 

Section 905(b) reflects a recognition that when the possible criminal activities involve a foreign intelligence source or potential foreign intelligence source, the referring intelligence community agency may have a strong interest in knowing on an expedited basis whether the Department of Justice intends to investigate potential crimes.

 

Accordingly, I hereby direct that, when an intelligence community agency making such a possible crime report (all of which fall within the scope of and therefore should be made pursuant to the 1995 MOU) to the Criminal Division of the Department:

 

(1) notifies the Assistant Attorney General or designated Deputy Assistant Attorney General[1] that the possible crime report involves activity of a foreign intelligence source or potential foreign intelligence source; and

 

(2) requests an expedited determination of the Department of Justice’s intent to commence or decline to commence a criminal investigation,

 

the designated Deputy Assistant Attorney General and/or another attorney within the Criminal Division or other relevant component of the Department shall expeditiously confer with the referring intelligence community agency about the possible criminal activity, the reasons for the time sensitivity, and the nature and extent of the intelligence equities that may be affected by a decision to commence or decline to commence a criminal investigation of the reported activity.  Upon receipt of the report, the designated Deputy Assistant Attorney General shall determine whether immediate contact with the referring agency is necessary. If a need for immediate contact is not established, an appropriate Department attorney will be made available for an initial contact with the referring intelligence community agency within seven days of the receipt of the report requesting an expedited determination.

 

After conferencing with the referencing agency, receiving any necessary additional information, and consulting with other appropriate Department components, the Assistant Attorney General or the designated Deputy Assistant Attorney General of the Criminal Division or another appropriate Department attorney shall inform the referring agency within a reasonable period of time whether the Department intends to commence or decline t o commence a criminal investigation of the conduct described in the crime report. In all cases, Department attorneys shall take into account any special time urgency associated with the intelligence community agency’s intelligence equities or the possible criminal activity and, if necessary, provide notice of the prosecutorial decision on a highly expedited basis. Except in extraordinary circumstances, the referencing agency should be informed within 30 days. Extraordinary circumstances requiring more than 30 days may include situations where the case is of unusual complexity or where information necessary for a prosecutorial decision is unavailable.

 

These procedures are not intended to and do not create any rights, privileges, or benefits, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the United State, its departments, agencies, or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

 

The guidelines in this memorandum shall be effective immediately.



[1] The notification should be documented in writing, consistent with the procedures set forth in the 1995 Memorandum of Understanding governing the reporting by the intelligence community of possible criminal activity to the Department of Justice.

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Ref Book - Foreign Intelligence Acquired in the course of a Criminal Investigation

Friday, August 03, 2012

Foreign Intelligence & Criminal Investigations

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Guidelines Regarding Disclosure to the Director of Central Intelligence and Homeland Security Officials of Foreign Intelligence Acquired in the course of a Criminal Investigation

Office of the Attorney General
Washington
, DC 20530
September 23, 2002

MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPONENTS AND HEADS OF FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES

FROM THE ATTORNEY GENERAL -/S/-John Ashcroft

SUBJECT: Guidelines Regarding Disclosure to the Director of Central Intelligence and Homeland Security Officials of Foreign Intelligence Acquired in the course of a Criminal Investigation

Background

            The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272, 389, enacted into law certain requirements for the sharing of information by Federal Law enforcement agencies with the intelligence community. Specifically, section 905(a) of the USA PATRIOT Act provides that “the Attorney General, or the head of any other department or agency of the Federal Government with law enforcement responsibilities, shall expeditiously disclose to the Director of Central Intelligence, pursuant to guidelines developed by the Attorney General in consultation with the Director, foreign intelligence acquired by an element of the Department of Justice or an element of such department or agency, as the case may be, in the course of a criminal investigation.”

            Since the enactment of the USA PATRIOT Act, federal law enforcement agencies have taken steps to improve existing channels of communication with the intelligence community and certain offices relating to homeland security (collectively, “Receiving Agencies”) in order to share foreign intelligence acquired in the course of criminal investigations.  The purpose of these guidelines is to formalize a framework pursuant to section 905(a) of the USA PATRIOT Act that will facilitate and increase to the fullest extent possible the continued expeditious sharing of such information.  The procedures established by these guidelines for the sharing of information between components of the Department of Justice or other departments and agencies having law enforcement responsibilities with Recipients (as defined below) are not, however, intended to replace or supersede existing operational or information sharing mechanisms between Federal law enforcement agencies and Receiving Agencies.  As appropriate, those relationships should continue to be used to the fullest extent possible.

            Heads of Department of Justice components and heads of other departments and agencies of the Federal government having law enforcement responsibility shall distribute these guidelines within their respective departments, components and agencies, as appropriate, to ensure prompt and effective implementation of section 905(a) and these guidelines.

Guidelines for Section 905(a) Information Sharing

1                    Scope of Application.  These guidelines apply to all elements of the Department of Justice having criminal investigative or prosecutorial responsibilities and to all other departments and agencies of the Federal government having law enforcement responsibilities (herinafter, collectively, “Federal Law Enforcement Agencies”).  These guidelines do not apply to agencies that provide support to criminal investigations, but that do not themselves conduct criminal investigations (e.g., the Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control and Financial Crimes Enforcement Network).

 

2                    Law Enforcement Information Subject to Mandatory Disclosure.  Subject to any exceptions established by the Attorney General in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence (the “Director”) and Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, section 905(a) and these guidelines require expeditious disclosure to the Director, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security or other members of the U.S. intelligence community or homeland security agencies as are designated under paragraph 4, infra, of foreign intelligence acquired in the course of a criminal investigation conducted by Federal Law Enforcement Agencies.

 

a.    As used herein, the term “foreign intelligence” is defined in section 3 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. §401a) as:  “information relating to the capabilities, intentions, or activities of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities.”

 

b.    The term “section 905(a) information” means foreign intelligence acquired in the course of a criminal investigation.

 

c.    Section 203(d) of the USA PATRIOT Act, provides that:  “Notwithstanding any other law, it shall be lawful for foreign intelligence or counterintelligence (as defined in section 3 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C §401a)) or foreign intelligence information obtained as part of a criminal investigation to be disclosed to any Federal law enforcement, intelligence, protective, immigration, national defense, or national security official in order to assist the official receiving that information in the performance of his official duties.”  Thus, no other Federal or state law operates to prevent the sharing of such information so long as disclosure of such information will assist the Director and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security in the performance of their official duties, and Federal Law Enforcement Agencies shall, notwithstanding any other law, expeditiously disclose to the Recipients (as defined below) section 905(a) information.

 

3                    Training.  Pursuant to section 908 of the USA PATRIOT Act, the department of Justice, in consultation with the Director, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, and other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, will develop a training curriculum and program to ensure that law enforcement officials receive sufficient training to identify foreign intelligence subject to the disclosure requirements under these guidelines.

 

4                    Entities to Whom Disclosure Shall Be Made.  The Director, in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, shall promptly advise the Attorney General of his designations of appropriate offices, entities and/or officials of Receiving Agencies to receive the disclosure of section 905(a) information not covered by an established operational or information sharing mechanism.  Said designees, together with the Director and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and all offices, entities, or individuals covered by such an established mechanism, are collectively referred to herein as the “Recipients.”  The Director, in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, shall ensure that sufficient Recipients are identified to facilitate expeditious sharing and handling of section 905(a) information.

 

5                    Methods for Disclosure of Section 905(a) Information.  Subject only to any exceptions that may be established pursuant to paragraph 9(a), infra, all section 905(a) information shall be shared as expeditiously as possible with one or more of the Recipients.  The procedures established in this paragraph may be supplemented by more detailed definitions and protocols disseminated to appropriate law enforcement, intelligence, and homeland security officials in classified or confidential form.

 

a.    Terrorism or Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Information.  Federal law enforcement officials shall disclose immediately to one or more Recipients information which they reasonably believe relates to a potential terrorism or WMD threat to the United States homeland, its critical infrastructure, key resources (whether physical or electronic), or to United States persons or interests worldwide.  Other terrorism or WMD information, as defined by section 5(a)(i) and (ii), shall be disclosed to one or more Recipients as expeditiously as possible.  In all cases, the official shall disclose such information with the understood priorities of disrupting terrorist plans, preventing terrorists’ attacks, and preserving the lives of United States persons.  Disclosure may be made through one or more of the following:  existing field-level operational or information sharing mechanisms, including a Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF); existing headquarters operational or information sharing mechanisms; or when the officer reasonably believes that time does not permit the use of any such established mechanisms, any other field level or other mechanism intended to facilitate immediate action, response or other efforts to address such threats.

 

As soon as possible after any disclosure under the preceding paragraph, the disclosing official shall notify the relevant JTTF of the disclosure.  The JTTF shall, as appropriate, keep the relevant Anti-Terrorism Task Force (ATTF) apprised of the nature of the information disclosed.  The relevant ATTF shall, in turn, apprise the Department of Justice Criminal Division’s Terrorism and Violent Crime Section (TVCS).  Where information is disclosed by the headquarters of the relevant Federal Law Enforcement Agency, the headquarters shall, as soon as practicable and to the extent reasonable, notify TVCS of all disclosures.  Federal agencies may require additional notification procedures where appropriate. 

 

For purposes of these guidelines, “terrorism information” and “weapons of mass destruction information” are defined as follows:

 

Terrorism Information:  All information relating to the existence, organization, capabilities, plans, intentions, vulnerabilities, means of finance or material support, or activities of foreign or international terrorist groups or individuals or threats posed by such groups or individuals to the United States, United States persons, or United States interests, or to those of other nations, or to communications between such groups or individuals, or information relating to groups or individuals reasonably believed to be assisting or associated with them. 

 

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Information:  All information relating to conventional explosive weapons and non-conventional weapons capable of causing mass casualties and damage, including chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear agents and weapons and the means of delivery of such weapons.

 

b.    All Other Section 905(a) Information.  In consultation with the Department of Justice and the Director, Federal Law Enforcement Agencies shall develop (or continue to follow existing) protocols (which may be classified or confidential) to provide for the expeditious sharing of section 905(a) information concerning all other subjects.

 

c.    Consultation With Respect to Title III and Grand Jury Materials.  Except as to section 905(a) information related to a potential terrorism or WMD threat, disclosure of 905(a) information will be accomplished in consultation with the prosecuting official assigned to the case if:  (i) the information was developed through investigatory activities occurring after a particular investigation has been referred formally to the Department of Justice for prosecution; and (ii) the information was produced by an electronic, wire, or oral interception or solely as a result of a grand jury subpoena or testimony occurring before a grand jury receiving information concerning the particular investigation.  This consultation may be the basis for identifying appropriate use restrictions or for seeking an exception to the section 905(a) disclosure requirements as set forth in paragraph 9, infra.  Consultation shall be accomplished expeditiously, and any resulting disclosure shall occur no later than 48 hours after the prosecutor is initially notified.  Section 905(a) information that a Federal law enforcement official reasonably believes is related to a potential terrorism or WMD threat, including information received from an electronic, wire, or oral interception or as a result of a grand jury subpoena or testimony occurring before a grand jury, shall be immediately disclosed by the Federal law enforcement official using the mechanisms described in paragraph 5(a), supra, and without need for advance consultation with the prosecuting official responsible for the case.  Contemporaneously or as soon after making the disclosure as possible, the Federal law enforcement official shall notify the prosecuting official responsible for the case in order to facilitate notice to the court, if necessary or appropriate.

 

6                    Requests for Additional Information and Amplification on Initial Disclosure.

 a.    Initial disclosure of section 905(a) information to Recipients shall be accomplished automatically and without specific prior request to the disclosing department, component, or agency.

 

b.    Requests by any Recipient for additional information or for clarification or amplification related to the initial disclosure should be coordinated, as applicable, through the component that provided the initial information or the designated headquarters office of the relevant Federal law enforcement agency.

7                    Disclosure of Grand Jury and Electronic, Wire, and Oral Interception Information.

 a.    Sections 203(a) and (b) of the USA PATRIOT Act permit the disclosure of federal grand jury information and electronic, wire and oral interception information to specified recipients for specified purposes (hereinafter “section 203 information”).

 

b.    Where section 203 information is shared pursuant to Paragraph 5, notice of such disclosures shall be promptly provided to the Office of Enforcement Operations (OEO) of the Department of Justice, Criminal Division.  OEO shall establish appropriate record keeping procedures to ensure compliance with notice requirements related to the disclosure of grand jury information pursuant to section 203.

 

c.    The USA PATRIOT Act requires special procedures for the disclosure of section 203 information that identifies United States persons.  The Federal law enforcement agency disclosing section 203 information pursuant to these guidelines shall observe the procedures established by the Attorney General for disclosing such information that identifies a United States person.  A copy of the section 203 United States person information procedures is attached as Appendix B.

 

d.    By these guidelines the special procedures that were established pursuant to section 203(c) are made applicable to all section 905(a) disclosures of information that identify a United States person. 

 

8.                  Information Use Restrictions.

 

a.    In the absence of any significant law enforcement interests, as identified below in paragraph 8(b), necessitating the imposition of use restrictions, Federal Law Enforcement Agencies shall disclose section 905(a) information to Recipients pursuant to these guidelines free of any originator controls or information use restrictions.

b.   The originator of the section 905(a) information may impose appropriate use restrictions necessary to protect sensitive law enforcement sources and ongoing criminal investigations and prosecutions.  The scope and duration of such restrictions, including caveats restricting use of the disclosed information to a particular level or element of the intelligence community, will be tailored to address the particular situation or subject matter involved.

 

i.                    When imposed, use restrictions shall be no more restrictive than necessary to accomplish the desired effect.

 

ii.                  Once imposed, use restrictions shall be reviewed periodically by the originator to determine whether they can be narrowed or lifted at the request of Recipients.

 

c.   Section 203 information shall be disclosed subject to any use restrictions necessary to comply with notice and record keeping requirements and to protect sensitive law enforcement sources and ongoing criminal investigations and prosecutions.

 

9.                  Attorney General Exceptions to Mandatory Disclosure of Section 905 Information.

 

a.   Section 905(a) expressly authorizes the Attorney General, in consultation with the Director, to exempt by regulation from the mandatory disclosure obligation one or more classes of foreign intelligence or foreign intelligence related to one or more targets or matters.

 

b.   Pending the development of appropriate permanent exceptions, exemptions from the mandatory disclosure obligation will be determined by the Attorney General in consultation with the Director and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security on a case-by-case basis.

 

c.   Requests for an Attorney General exception to mandatory disclosure of section 905(a) information must be submitted by the department, component or agency head in writing with a complete description of the facts and circumstances giving rise to the need for an exception and why lesser measures such as use restrictions are not adequate.

 

10.              Administering Agent.  The Assistant Attorney General of the Criminal Division, in consultation with affected Agencies, Offices and Divisions of the Department of Justice, will act as executive agent for the Attorney General in administering these guidelines and providing advice and assistance to Federal law enforcement regarding the implementation of sections 203 and 905.

 

11.              No Private Rights Created.  These procedures are not intended to and do not create and rights, privileges, or benefits, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person

 

12.              Effective Immediately.  The guidelines in this memorandum shall be effective immediately.

 

APPENDICES:

 

A.                 Extract Copy of Section 905

Procedures for Marking, Handling and Disclosing Information that Identifies a United States Person.

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Ref Book - War Crimes Act of 1996

Friday, August 03, 2012

War Crimes Act of 1996

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Short Title.

SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the `War Crimes Act of 1996'.

Criminal Penalties for Certain War Crimes.

SEC. 2.

(a) IN GENERAL—Title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after chapter 117 the following:

 

(a) Offense.—Whoever, whether inside or outside the United States, commits a war crime, in any of the circumstances described in subsection (b), shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for life or any term of years, or both, and if death results to the victim, shall also be subject to the penalty of death.

(b) Circumstances.—The circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are that the person committing such war crime or the victim of such war crime is a member of the Armed Forces of the United States or a national of the United States (as defined in section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act).

(c) Definition.—As used in this section the term “war crime” means any conduct—

(1) defined as a grave breach in any of the international conventions signed at Geneva 12 August 1949, or any protocol to such convention to which the United States is a party;

(2) prohibited by Article 23, 25, 27, or 28 of the Annex to the Hague Convention IV, Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, signed 18 October 1907;

(3) which constitutes a grave breach of common Article 3 (as defined in subsection (d)) when committed in the context of and in association with an armed conflict not of an international character; or

(4) of a person who, in relation to an armed conflict and contrary to the provisions of the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices as amended at Geneva on 3 May 1996 (Protocol II as amended on 3 May 1996), when the United States is a party to such Protocol, willfully kills or causes serious injury to civilians.

(d) Common Article 3 Violations.—

(1) Prohibited conduct.—In subsection (c)(3), the term “grave breach of common Article 3” means any conduct (such conduct constituting a grave breach of common Article 3 of the international conventions done at Geneva August 12, 1949), as follows:

(A) Torture.—The act of a person who commits, or conspires or attempts to commit, an act specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control for the purpose of obtaining information or a confession, punishment, intimidation, coercion, or any reason based on discrimination of any kind.

(B) Cruel or inhuman treatment.—The act of a person who commits, or conspires or attempts to commit, an act intended to inflict severe or serious physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions), including serious physical abuse, upon another within his custody or control.

(C) Performing biological experiments.—The act of a person who subjects, or conspires or attempts to subject, one or more persons within his custody or physical control to biological experiments without a legitimate medical or dental purpose and in so doing endangers the body or health of such person or persons.

(D) Murder.—The act of a person who intentionally kills, or conspires or attempts to kill, or kills whether intentionally or unintentionally in the course of committing any other offense under this subsection, one or more persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including those placed out of combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause.

(E) Mutilation or maiming.—The act of a person who intentionally injures, or conspires or attempts to injure, or injures whether intentionally or unintentionally in the course of committing any other offense under this subsection, one or more persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including those placed out of combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, by disfiguring the person or persons by any mutilation thereof or by permanently disabling any member, limb, or organ of his body, without any legitimate medical or dental purpose.

(F) Intentionally causing serious bodily injury.—The act of a person who intentionally causes, or conspires or attempts to cause, serious bodily injury to one or more persons, including lawful combatants, in violation of the law of war.

(G) Rape.—The act of a person who forcibly or with coercion or threat of force wrongfully invades, or conspires or attempts to invade, the body of a person by penetrating, however slightly, the anal or genital opening of the victim with any part of the body of the accused, or with any foreign object.

(H) Sexual assault or abuse.—The act of a person who forcibly or with coercion or threat of force engages, or conspires or attempts to engage, in sexual contact with one or more persons, or causes, or conspires or attempts to cause, one or more persons to engage in sexual contact.

(I) Taking hostages.—The act of a person who, having knowingly seized or detained one or more persons, threatens to kill, injure, or continue to detain such person or persons with the intent of compelling any nation, person other than the hostage, or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for the safety or release of such person or persons.

(2) Definitions.—In the case of an offense under subsection (a) by reason of subsection (c)(3)—

(A) the term “severe mental pain or suffering” shall be applied for purposes of paragraphs (1)(A) and (1)(B) in accordance with the meaning given that term in section 2340(2) of this title;

(B) the term “serious bodily injury” shall be applied for purposes of paragraph (1)(F) in accordance with the meaning given that term in section 113(b)(2) of this title;

(C) the term “sexual contact” shall be applied for purposes of paragraph (1)(G) in accordance with the meaning given that term in section 2246(3) of this title;

(D) the term “serious physical pain or suffering” shall be applied for purposes of paragraph (1)(B) as meaning bodily injury that involves—

(i) a substantial risk of death;

(ii) extreme physical pain;

(iii) a burn or physical disfigurement of a serious nature (other than cuts, abrasions, or bruises); or

(iv) significant loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty; and

(E) the term “serious mental pain or suffering” shall be applied for purposes of paragraph (1)(B) in accordance with the meaning given the term “severe mental pain or suffering” (as defined in section 2340(2) of this title), except that—

(i) the term “serious” shall replace the term “severe” where it appears; and

(ii) as to conduct occurring after the date of the enactment of the Military Commissions Act of 2006, the term “serious and non-transitory mental harm (which need not be prolonged)” shall replace the term “prolonged mental harm” where it appears.

(3) Inapplicability of certain provisions with respect to collateral damage or incident of lawful attack.—The intent specified for the conduct stated in subparagraphs (D), (E), and (F) or paragraph (1) precludes the applicability of those subparagraphs to an offense under subsection (a) by reasons of subsection (c)(3) with respect to—

(A) collateral damage; or

(B) death, damage, or injury incident to a lawful attack.

(4) Inapplicability of taking hostages to prisoner exchange.—Paragraph (1)(I) does not apply to an offense under subsection (a) by reason of subsection (c)(3) in the case of a prisoner exchange during wartime.

(5) Definition of grave breaches.—The definitions in this subsection are intended only to define the grave breaches of common Article 3 and not the full scope of United States obligations under that Article.”

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Ref Book - Interception of Communications

Friday, August 03, 2012

Interception of Wire, Electronic, and Oral Communications

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CHAPTER 119 OF TITLE 18, UNITED STATES CODE
 
Interception and Disclosure of Wire, Oral or Electronic Communications Prohibited
 

Section. 2511.

(1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any person who—

(a) intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral, or electronic communication;

(b) intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any other person to use or endeavor to use any electronic, mechanical, or other device to intercept any oral communication when—

(i) such device is affixed to, or otherwise transmits a signal through, a wire, cable, or other like connection used in wire communication; or

(ii) such device transmits communications by radio, or interferes with the transmission of such communication; or

(iii) such person knows, or has reason to know, that such device or any component thereof has been sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or

(iv) such use or endeavor to use (A) takes place on the premises of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (B) obtains or is for the purpose of obtaining information relating to the operations of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or

(v) such person acts in the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States;

(c) intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection;

(d) intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; or

(e)(i) intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, intercepted by means authorized by sections 2511 (2)(a)(ii), 2511 (2)(b)–(c), 2511(2)(e), 2516, and 2518 of this chapter,

(ii) knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of such a communication in connection with a criminal investigation,

(iii) having obtained or received the information in connection with a criminal investigation, and

(iv) with intent to improperly obstruct, impede, or interfere with a duly authorized criminal investigation,

shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) or shall be subject to suit as provided in subsection (5).

(2)(a)(i) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire or electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire or electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of his employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service, except that a provider of wire communication service to the public shall not utilize service observing or random monitoring except for mechanical or service quality control checks.

(ii) Notwithstanding any other law, providers of wire or electronic communication service, their officers, employees, and agents, landlords, custodians, or other persons, are authorized to provide information, facilities, or technical assistance to persons authorized by law to intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications or to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, if such provider, its officers, employees, or agents, landlord, custodian, or other specified person, has been provided with—

(A) a court order directing such assistance or a court order pursuant to section 704 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 signed by the authorizing judge, or

(B) a certification in writing by a person specified in section 2518 (7) of this title or the Attorney General of the United States that no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is required, setting forth the period of time during which the provision of the information, facilities, or technical assistance is authorized and specifying the information, facilities, or technical assistance required. No provider of wire or electronic communication service, officer, employee, or agent thereof, or landlord, custodian, or other specified person shall disclose the existence of any interception or surveillance or the device used to accomplish the interception or surveillance with respect to which the person has been furnished a court order or certification under this chapter, except as may otherwise be required by legal process and then only after prior notification to the Attorney General or to the principal prosecuting attorney of a State or any political subdivision of a State, as may be appropriate. Any such disclosure, shall render such person liable for the civil damages provided for in section 2520. No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, or agents, landlord, custodian, or other specified person for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order, statutory authorization, or certification under this chapter.

‘(iii) If a certification under subparagraph (ii)(B) for assistance to obtain foreign intelligence information is based on statutory authority, the certification shall identify the specific statutory provision and shall certify that the statutory requirements have been met.

(b) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an officer, employee, or agent of the Federal Communications Commission, in the normal course of his employment and in discharge of the monitoring responsibilities exercised by the Commission in the enforcement of chapter 5 of title 47 of the United States Code, to intercept a wire or electronic communication, or oral communication transmitted by radio, or to disclose or use the information thereby obtained.

(c) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, where such person is a party to the communication or one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception.

(d) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or section 705 or 706 of the Communications Act of 1934, it shall not be unlawful for an officer, employee, or agent of the United States in the normal course of his official duty to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as authorized by that Act.

(f) Nothing contained in this chapter or chapter 121 or 206 of this title, or section 705 of the Communications Act of 1934, shall be deemed to affect the acquisition by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from international or foreign communications, or foreign intelligence activities conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than electronic surveillance as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and procedures in this chapter or chapter 121 and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of such Act, and the interception of domestic wire, oral, and electronic communications may be conducted.

(g) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter or chapter 121 of this title for any person—

(i) to intercept or access an electronic communication made through an electronic communication system that is configured so that such electronic communication is readily accessible to the general public;

(ii) to intercept any radio communication which is transmitted—

(I) by any station for the use of the general public, or that relates to ships, aircraft, vehicles, or persons in distress;

(II) by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense, private land mobile, or public safety communications system, including police and fire, readily accessible to the general public;

(III) by a station operating on an authorized frequency within the bands allocated to the amateur, citizens band, or general mobile radio services; or

(IV) by any marine or aeronautical communications system;

(iii) to engage in any conduct which—

(I) is prohibited by section 633 of the Communications Act of 1934; or

(II) is excepted from the application of section 705(a) of the Communications Act of 1934 by section 705(b) of that Act;

(iv) to intercept any wire or electronic communication the transmission of which is causing harmful interference to any lawfully operating station or consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of such interference; or

(v) for other users of the same frequency to intercept any radio communication made through a system that utilizes frequencies monitored by individuals engaged in the provision or the use of such system, if such communication is not scrambled or encrypted.

(h) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter—

(i) to use a pen register or a trap and trace device (as those terms are defined for the purposes of chapter 206 (relating to pen registers and trap and trace devices) of this title); or

(ii) for a provider of electronic communication service to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire or electronic communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of such service.

(i) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting under color of law to intercept the wire or electronic communications of a computer trespasser transmitted to, through, or from the protected computer, if—

(I) the owner or operator of the protected computer authorizes the interception of the computer trespasser’s communications on the protected computer;

(II) the person acting under color of law is lawfully engaged in an investigation;

(III) the person acting under color of law has reasonable grounds to believe that the contents of the computer trespasser’s communications will be relevant to the investigation; and

(IV) such interception does not acquire communications other than those transmitted to or from the computer trespasser.

(3)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, a person or entity providing an electronic communication service to the public shall not intentionally divulge the contents of any communication (other than one to such person or entity, or an agent thereof) while in transmission on that service to any person or entity other than an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient.

(b) A person or entity providing electronic communication service to the public may divulge the contents of any such communication—

(i) as otherwise authorized in section 2511 (2)(a) or 2517 of this title;

(ii) with the lawful consent of the originator or any addressee or intended recipient of such communication;

(iii) to a person employed or authorized, or whose facilities are used, to forward such communication to its destination; or

(iv) which were inadvertently obtained by the service provider and which appear to pertain to the commission of a crime, if such divulgence is made to a law enforcement agency.

(4)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection or in subsection (5), whoever violates subsection (1) of this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(b) Conduct otherwise an offense under this subsection that consists of or relates to the interception of a satellite transmission that is not encrypted or scrambled and that is transmitted—

(i) to a broadcasting station for purposes of retransmission to the general public; or

(ii) as an audio subcarrier intended for redistribution to facilities open to the public, but not including data transmissions or telephone calls,

is not an offense under this subsection unless the conduct is for the purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial gain.

(5)(a)(i) If the communication is—

(A) a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of that communication and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain; or

(B) a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain,

then the person who engages in such conduct shall be subject to suit by the Federal Government in a court of competent jurisdiction.

(ii) In an action under this subsection—

(A) if the violation of this chapter is a first offense for the person under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) and such person has not been found liable in a civil action under section 2520 of this title, the Federal Government shall be entitled to appropriate injunctive relief; and

(B) if the violation of this chapter is a second or subsequent offense under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) or such person has been found liable in any prior civil action under section 2520, the person shall be subject to a mandatory $500 civil fine.

(b) The court may use any means within its authority to enforce an injunction issued under paragraph (ii)(A), and shall impose a civil fine of not less than $500 for each violation of such an injunction.


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