Module 02 Cyber Virtualization


Close your eyes... no really, close them... and imagine a world without the internet. It’s hard to do.

Technology has advanced greatly since its inception, and much of it is due to virtualization and a software technology called a hypervisor.

Once upon a time

in a far away place called the ‘80s, the three layers of a computer operated as one unit.

if the O/S on your computer was Linux and you wanted to add Windows...

you would have to buy a new computer.

Computing, as we know it today, would not be feasible if it were not for Virtualization.

Virtualization and the Cloud

Virtualization allowed applications, O/S, and hardware to “separate”...

and operate within their own compartment.

Then, with the invention of the internet, these computers were able to communicate across
long distances.

Companies capitalized on these new technologies

by offering services that allowed you to securely access and store your data away from your computer...

launching the “formation” of clouds.

How can we better understand the concept of “clouds”?

Think about your utilities

Unless you’re Disney,
more than likely you do not own a utilities grid—either you can’t afford one or it simply is not feasible. Yet, there are companies that can support this operation.

So, you sign up with that company, use its services, and they bill you for what you’ve used.

How it works:
Cloud Security

Now, transfer that concept to your computer and the cloud.

It is quite costly to operate a data operations server room (e.g., equipment, building, etc.)

IaaS & PaaS

So, there are companies that will
offer IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) and will support firms for a fee.

Some firms cannot support
their own databases, so, PaaS
(Platform as a Service)
will support that and more.

But now, let’s make this a bit more personal:

The internet & SaaS

More than likely, you could not build and maintain the necessary equipment needed to link into the internet to access email, YouTube, games, etc.

Therefore, you sign up with an internet provider company (e.g., Verizon, DirecTV)
that can provide access to SaaS (Software as a Service) services for a fee.

Does the government use cloud services?

Yes, the government does use cloud services with closely-
controlled access for government employees and affiliates.

Many of these cloud services are set up as private clouds,

which are dedicated exclusively to one organization and are not on the internet.

Cloud vulnerabilities & limitations

When using cloud services, we are trusting others with our sensitive and valuable data. These services have vulnerabilities and limitations.

Reliability and Availability of Service

We expect our cloud services and applications to always be available when we need them, which is one of the reasons for moving to the cloud.

But this isn’t always the case...

especially in severe storms that cause power outages.


The Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) have internal uninterrupted power supplies, but even those can sometimes fail...

so we can’t rely on cloud services
to be up and running 100% of the time.


Using a cloud service means we’re also dependent on the internet, which can be impacted by weather and maintenance.

How long could your office go without having access to files and applications?

Data Protection and Portability:

When choosing to switch from one cloud provider to another, we have to address the problem of data movement and deletion.

The old CSP must delete all the data we stored in its data center.


if a CSP goes out of business, they must provide the data to the customers, so they can move to an alternate CSP, after which the data must be deleted.

Since we are on the subject of the internet, let’s take a few moments to discuss how that system networks and communicates.

do I need to understand...

and communication?

Many of the cyber threats discussed in our field stem from some vulnerability within these areas.

Data Breaches and Encryption


Will they ever
go away?

In time, but they have been a “wake-up” call for our community. The solution is encryption.

When we use the internet, we’re not always “surfing.” Many times, we’re ordering something or setting up an online account.

Most likely, we’re doing something requiring us to enter a good deal of sensitive personal information.


Encryption is the process of encoding information in such a way that only the person (or computer) with the key can decode it.

What is

Computer encryption
is based on the science of cryptography.

Without cryptographic network security protocols, internet functions such as e-commerce would not be possible.

Secure communication is necessary because attackers try to eavesdrop on communications, modify messages in transit, and hijack exchanges between systems.

Some of the tasks network security protocols are commonly used for: file transfers, web communication, and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs.)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the most common method of transferring files. A problem with FTP is that it sends files in cleartext, meaning it is unencrypted, and, therefore in a form that others can compromise. For example, many webmasters update their sites using FTP; an attacker using a packet sniffer and the website’s IP address can intercept all communications between the webmaster and the site’s server.

As an alternative...

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) offers a more secure way to transfer files. SFTP is built upon Secure Shell (SSH) and is able to encrypt commands and data transfers over a network, thereby reducing the likelihood of interception attacks. The SSH cryptographic protocol is also resilient to impersonation attacks, because the client and server are authenticated using digital certificates.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) creates an encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as a public WiFi Hotspot or the internet. Often, businesses use them to enable employees to securely access sensitive data.

Knowledge Check Module 2


Use your knowledge of virtualizations, clouds, and encryption to select the best answer. Then click the arrow for the
next question.

    1. Your Chosen Answer: Your Chosen Answer:

  • Select a module below to continue

    Click the previous arrow to review the Knowledge Check